Selection, Installation & Maintanence for Hose and Hose Assemblies

Sae J1273NOV19

Sae Recommended Practice

1. Scope

2. References

2.1 Application Documents

The following publications form a part of this specification to the extent specified here-in. The latest issue of SAE publications shall apply.

2.1.1 SAE publications - Available from SAE, 400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096-0001.

J516 Hydraulic Hose Fitting
J517 - Hydraulic Hose


3.1 Pressure

After determining the system pressure, hose selection must be made so that the recommended maximum operating pressure is equal to or greater than the system pressure. Surge pressures higher than the maximum operating pressure will shorten hose life and must be taken into account by the hydraulic designer.

3.2 Suction

Hoses used for suction applications must be selected to insure the hose will withstand the negative pressures of the system.

3.3 Temperature

Care must be taken to insure that fluid and ambient temperatures, both static and transient, do not exceed the limitations of the hose. Special care must be taken when routing near hot manifolds.

3.4 Fluid Compatibility

Hose selection must assure compatibility of the hose tube, cover, and fittings with the fluid used. Additional caution must be observed in hose selection for gaseous applications.

3.5 Size

Transmission of power by means of pressurized fluid varies with pressure and rate of flow. The size of the components must be adequate to keep pressure losses to a minimum and avoid damage to the hose due to heat generation or excessive turbulence.

3.6 Routing

Attention must be given to optimum routing to minimize inherent problems.

3.7 Environment

Care must be taken to insure that the hose and fittings are either compatible with or protected from the environment to which they are exposed. Environmental conditions such as ultraviolet light, ozone, salt water, chemicals, and air pollutants can cause degradation and premature failure, and, therefore, must be considered.

3.8 Mechanical Loads

External forces can significantly reduce hose life. Mechanical loads which must be considered include excessive flexing, twist, kinking, tensile or side loads, bend radius, and vibration. Use of swivel-type fittings or adapters may be required to insure no twist is put into the hose. Unusual applications may require special testing prior to hose selection.

3.9 Abrasion

While a hose is designed with a reasonable level of abrasion-resistance, care must be taken to protect the hose from excessive abrasion which can result in erosion, snagging, and cutting of the hose cover. Exposure of the reinforcement will significantly accelerate hose failure.

3.10 Proper End Fitting

Care must be taken to insure that proper compatibility exists between the hose and coupling selected based on the manufacturer's recommendations substantiated by testing to industry standards such as SAE J517. End fitting components from one manufacturer are usually not compatible with end fitting components supplied by another manufacturer (i.e., using a hose fitting nipple from one manufacturer with a hose socket from another manufacturer). It is the responsibility of the fabricator to consult the manufacturer's written instructions or the manufacturer directly for proper end fitting componentry.

3.11 Length

When establishing proper hose length, motion absorption, hose length changes due to pressure, as well as hose and machine tolerances must be considered.

3.12 Specifications and Standards

When selecting hose, government, industry and manufacturers’ specifications and recommendations must be reviewed as applicable.

3.13 Hose Cleanliness

Hose components vary in cleanliness levels. Care must be taken to insure that the assemblies selected have an adequate level of cleanliness for the application.

3.14 Electrical Conductivity

Certain applications require that hose be non-conductive to prevent electrical current flow. Other applications require the hose to be sufficiently conductive to drain off static electricity. Hose and fittings must be chosen with these needs in mind.

4. Installation

4.1 Pre-Installation Inspection

Prior to installation, a careful examination of the hose must be performed. All components must be checked for correct style, size, and length. In addition, the hose must be examined for cleanliness, I.D. obstructions, blisters, loose cover, or any other visible defects.

4.2 Follow Manufacturers' Assembly Instructions

Hose assemblies may be fabricated by the manufacturer, an agent for or customer of the manufacturer, or by the user. Fabrication of permanently attached fittings to hydraulic hose requires specialized assembly equipment. Field attachable fittings (screw style and segment clamp style) can usually be assembled without specialized equipment, although many manufacturers provide equipment to assist in this operation.

SAE J517 hose from one manufacturer is usually not compatible with SAE J516 fittings supplied by another manufacturer. It is the responsibility of the fabricator to consult the manufacturer's written assembly instructions or the manufacturer's directly before intermixing hose and fittings from two manufacturers.

Similarly, assembly equipment from one manufacturer is usually not interchangeable with that of another manufacturer. It is the responsibility of the fabricator to consult the manufacturer's written instructions or the manufacturer directly for proper assembly equipment. Always follow the manufacturer's instructions for proper preparation and fabrication of hose assemblies.

4.3 Minimum Bend Radius

Installation at less than minimum bend radius may significantly reduce hose life. Particular attention must be given to preclude sharp bending at the hose/fitting juncture.

4.4 Twist Angle and Orientation

Hose installations must be such that relative motion of machine components produces bending of the hose rather than twisting.

4.5 Securement

In many applications, it may be necessary to restrain, protect, or guide the hose to protect it from damage by unnecessary flexing, pressure surges, and contact with other mechanical components. Care must be taken to insure such restraints do not introduce additional stress or wear joints.

4.6 Proper Connection of Ports

Proper physical installation of the hose requires a correctly installed port connection while insuring that no twist or torque is put into the hose.

4.7 Avoid External Damage

Proper installation is not complete without insuring that tensile loads, side loads, kinking, flattening, potential abrasion, thread damage, or damage to sealing surfaces are corrected or eliminated.

4.8 System Check-Out

After completing the installation, all air entrapment must be eliminated and the system pressurized to the maximum system pressure and checked for proper function and freedom from leaks.

NOTE: Avoid potential hazardous areas while testing.

5. Maintanence

5.1 Hose Storage

Hose products in storage can be affected adversely by temperature, humidity, ozone, sunlight, oils, solvents, corrosive liquids and fumes, insects, rodents, and radioactive materials. Storage areas should be relatively cool and dark and free of dust, dirt, dampness, and mildew.

5.2 Visual Inspection

Any of the following conditions requires replacement of the hose:

  1. Leaks at fitting or in hose (leaking fluid is a fire hazard)
  2. Damaged, cut, or abraded cover (any reinforcement exposed)
  3. Kinked, crushed, flattened, or twisted hose
  4. Hard, stiff, heat cracked, or charred hose
  5. Blistered, soft degraded, or loose cover
  6. Cracked, damaged, or badly corroded fittings
  7. Fitting slippage on hose

5.3 Visual Inspection

The following items must be tightened, repaired, or replaced as required:

  1. Leaking port conditions
  2. Clamps, guards, shields
  3. Remove excessive dirt buildup
  4. System fluid level, fluid type, and any air entrapment

5.4 Functional Test

Operate the system at maximum operating pressure and check for possible malfunctions and freedom from leaks.

NOTE: Avoid potential hazardous areas while testing

5.5 Replacement Intervals

Specific replacement intervals must be considered based on previous service life, government or industry recommendations, or when failures could result in unacceptable down time, damage, or injury risk.